The following list is an introduction to open-source technologies used in Pars Enterprise Platforms:
Open-source products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. It most commonly refers to the open-source model, in which open-source software or other products are released under an open-source license as part of the open-source-software movement. Use of the term originated with software, but has expanded beyond the software sector to cover other open content and forms of open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration.
Unix (/ˈjuːnɪks/; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix variants from vendors including University of California, Berkeley (BSD), Microsoft (Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems (Solaris). In the early 1990s, AT&T sold its rights in Unix to Novell, which then sold its Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) in 1995. The UNIX trademark passed to The Open Group, a neutral industry consortium, which allows the use of the mark for certified operating systems that comply with the Single UNIX Specification (SUS).
Unix systems are characterized by a modular design that is sometimes called the "Unix philosophy": the operating system provides a set of simple tools that each performs a limited, well-defined function, with a unified filesystem (the Unix filesystem) as the main means of communication, and a shell scripting and command language (the Unix shell) to combine the tools to perform complex workflows. Unix distinguishes itself from its predecessors as the first portable operating system: almost the entire operating system is written in the C programming language, thus allowing Unix to reach numerous platforms.
BSD: The Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was an operating system based on Research Unix, developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, "BSD" often refers to its descendants, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, or DragonFly BSD, and systems based on those descendants.
BSD was initially called Berkeley Unix because it was based on the source code of the original Unix developed at Bell Labs. In the 1980s, BSD was widely adopted by workstation vendors in the form of proprietary Unix variants such as DEC Ultrix and Sun Microsystems SunOS due to its permissive licensing and familiarity to many technology company founders and engineers.
FreeBSD: a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), which was based on Research Unix. The first version of FreeBSD was released in 1993. In 2005, FreeBSD was the most popular open-source BSD operating system, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed BSD systems.
FreeBSD has similarities with Linux, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD maintains a complete system, i.e. the project delivers a kernel, device drivers, userland utilities, and documentation, as opposed to Linux only delivering a kernel and drivers, and relying on third-parties for system software; and FreeBSD source code is generally released under a permissive BSD license, as opposed to the copyleft GPL used by Linux.
The FreeBSD project includes a security team overseeing all software shipped in the base distribution. A wide range of additional third-party applications may be installed using the pkg package management system or FreeBSD Ports, or by compiling source code.
Linux: a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution.
Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.
Grsecurity: a set of patches for the Linux kernel which emphasize security enhancements. The patches are typically used by computer systems which accept remote connections from untrusted locations, such as web servers and systems offering shell access to its users.
Journaling File System: a file system that keeps track of changes not yet committed to the file system's main part by recording the intentions of such changes in a data structure known as a "journal", which is usually a circular log.
LVM: Logical Volume Manager is a device mapper target that provides logical volume management for the Linux kernel. Most modern Linux distributions are LVM-aware to the point of being able to have their root file systems on a logical volume.
Cryptsetup: a utility used to conveniently set up disk encryption based on the DMCrypt kernel module. These include plain dm-crypt volumes, LUKS volumes, loop-AES and TrueCrypt (including VeraCrypt extension) formats.
ZFS: a combined file system and logical volume manager designed by Sun Microsystems. ZFS is scalable, and includes extensive protection against data corruption, support for high storage capacities.
GELI: a block device-layer disk encryption system written for FreeBSD, introduced in version 6.0. It uses the GEOM disk framework. It was designed and implemented by Paweł Jakub Dawidek.
FUSE: Filesystem in Userspace is a software interface for Unix and Unix-like computer operating systems that lets non-privileged users create their own file systems without editing kernel code. This is achieved by running file system code in user space while the FUSE module provides only a "bridge" to the actual kernel interfaces.
OpenSSL: a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end. It is widely used by Internet servers, including the majority of HTTPS websites.
OpenNTPD: a Unix daemon implementing the Network Time Protocol to synchronize the local clock of a computer system with remote NTP servers. It is also able to act as an NTP server to NTP-compatible clients.
OpenSSH: a suite of secure networking utilities based on the Secure Shell protocol, which provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–server architecture.
OpenSMTPD: a Unix daemon implementing the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol to deliver messages on a local machine or to relay them to other SMTP servers.
OpenVPN: an open-source commercial software that implements virtual private network techniques to create secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It uses a custom security protocol that utilizes SSL/TLS for key exchange.
OpenConnect: an open-source software application for connecting to virtual private networks, which implement secure point-to-point connections. It was originally written as an open-source replacement for Cisco's proprietary AnyConnect SSL VPN client, which is supported by several Cisco routers.
Stunnel: an open-source multi-platform application used to provide a universal TLS/SSL tunneling service. Stunnel can be used to provide secure encrypted connections for clients or servers that do not speak TLS or SSL natively.
GNUnet: a software framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking and an official GNU package. The framework offers link encryption, peer discovery, resource allocation, communication over many transports and various basic peer-to-peer algorithms for routing, multicast and network size estimation.
TorProject: a free and open-source software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name "The Onion Router".
Privoxy: a free non-caching web proxy with filtering capabilities for enhancing privacy, manipulating cookies and modifying web page data and HTTP headers before the page is rendered by the browser. Privoxy is a "privacy enhancing proxy", filtering web pages and removing advertisements.
I2Pnetwork: The Invisible Internet Project is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer to peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by encrypting the user's traffic, and sending it through a volunteer-run network of roughly 55,000 computers distributed around the world.
KDE Plasma Desktop: Plasma is KDE's desktop environment. Simple by default, powerful when needed. Plasma is designed to be easy to use. The Plasma Launcher lets you quickly and easily launch applications, but it can do much more -- convenient tasks like bookmarking applications, searching for documents as you type, or navigating to common places help you getting straight to the point.
Calligra Suite: a graphic art and office suite by KDE. It is available for desktop PCs, tablet computers, and smartphones. It contains applications for word processing, spreadsheets, presentation, databases, vector graphics, and digital painting.
Telepathy: KDE Telepathy is an instant messaging and voice over IP client which supports text, voice, video, file transfers, and inter-application communication over various IM protocols. It uses the Telepathy framework as its back-end.
LibreOffice: a free and open-source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation. It was forked in 2010 from OpenOffice.org, which was an open-sourced version of the earlier StarOffice.
Blender: a free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, motion graphics, interactive 3D applications, and computer games.
Eclipse: an integrated development environment used in computer programming. It contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment.
GIMP: a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.
FreeCAD: a free and open-source general-purpose parametric 3D CAD modeler and a building information modeling software with finite-element-method support.
Mozilla Firefox: a free and open-source web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards.
Mozilla Thunderbird: a free and open-source, cross-platform email client, news client, RSS, and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. The project strategy was modeled after that of the Mozilla Firefox web browser.
HPLIP: (HP's Linux Imaging and Printing software), Initiated and led by HP Inc. aims to ease Linux systems' ability to interact with HP's inkjet and laser printers with full printing, scanning, and faxing support.
FWbuilder: Firewall Builder is Open Source multi-platform firewall management software that supports Linux iptables, FreeBSD ipfilter and ipfw, OpenBSD pf, CIsco PIX and etc.
AQEMU: a GUI for virtual machines using QEMU as the backend. Support for the KVM accelerator on Linux is provided. The application has a user-friendly interface and allows to set a large number of options.
Signal: a cross-platform encrypted messaging service developed by the Signal Foundation and Signal Messenger LLC. It uses the Internet to send one-to-one and group messages, which can include files, voice notes, images and videos. Its mobile apps can also make one-to-one voice and video calls, and the Android version can optionally function as an SMS app.
Telegram: a cloud-based instant messaging and voice over IP service. Users can send messages and exchange photos, videos, stickers, audio and files of any type.
KeePassX: an application for people with extremely high demands on secure personal data management. It has a light interface and cross platform.
Electrum: a lightweight Bitcoin client which protects you from losing your bitcoins in a backup mistake or computer failure. Also, Electrum does not require waiting time because it does not download the Bitcoin blockchain.
Android File Transfer: a reliable MTP client with minimalistic UI. Its features are: 1. Simple Qt UI with progress dialogs. 2. FUSE wrapper, supporting partial read/writes, allowing instant access to your files.
Chkrootkit: a common Unix-based program intended to help system administrators check their system for known rootkits.
TestDisk: a free and open-source data recovery utility. It is primarily designed to help recover lost data storage partitions and/or make non-booting disks bootable again when these symptoms are caused by faulty software, certain types of viruses or human error.
PhotoRec: a file data recovery software designed to recover lost files including video, documents and archives from hard disks, CD-ROMs, and lost pictures (thus the Photo Recovery name) from digital camera memory. PhotoRec ignores the file system and goes after the underlying data, so it will still work even if your media's file system has been severely damaged or reformatted.
FSArchiver: a disk cloning utility for Linux. FSArchiver can save partitions containing different popular file systems to a disk image. It is a continuation of PartImage, which was a project from one of the same authors, and implements new features that PartImage lacks.
Gstreamer: a library for constructing graphs of media-handling components. The applications it supports range from simple Ogg/Vorbis playback, audio/video streaming to complex audio (mixing) and video (non-linear editing) processing. Applications can take advantage of advances in codec and filter technology transparently. Developers can add new codecs and filters by writing a simple plugin with a clean, generic interface.